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Why build an energy-efficient home? The answer is convincing. An energy-efficient home saves money by reducing energy use, provides a higher level of comfort to its occupants and increases the resale value of the house. Energy-efficient homes also fight against increasing greenhouse gases and global warming. Negative impacts of global warming include rising sea levels due to growing rates of glacial melting, more acidic oceans due to climbing carbon dioxide levels, and more frequent and severe weather events. Fortunately, recent technological advancements in building materials and construction techniques make the process of building an energy-efficient home less challenging. New home builders have many decisions to make when building an energy-efficient home; however, most energy-efficient homes have several things in common. An energy-efficient home has a tightly sealed thermal envelope, controlled ventilation, high-efficiency heating and cooling systems, and energy-efficient doors, windows, appliances, and home electronics. The ultimate goal of an energy-efficient home is to achieve net zero energy use and create a comfortable home with high indoor environmental quality.
The whole-building system approach treats a home as one energy system in which each part affects the performance of the whole-house. The whole-building system approach makes efficient use of water, electricity and other natural resources and strives to minimize waste and materials. It also ensures that all the building professionals are informed and understand every aspects that affect energy use in the home. The goal of the whole-building system approach is to create a home with lower utility and maintenance costs, improved durability and comfort, and a healthy and safe indoor environment. Architects, contractors, and homeowners agree that designing an energy-efficient home requires a whole-building system approach.
Proper site orientation (passive solar design) of a home is essential for taking advantage of the sun’s energy. Specifically, in the Northern Hemisphere homes should be oriented north-south. The north-south orientation minimizes direct sunlight during the summer (which lessens cooling demands) while maximizing sunlight during the winter (which lessons heating demands).
Room orientation is also an important design consideration of an energy-efficient home.
High thermal mass materials are an important design element of an energy-efficient home and typically used in walls and slab foundations. Thermal mass is the potential of a material to absorb and store heat energy. High thermal mass materials help stabilize temperature shifts within a home by slowing the rate of heat transfer. For example, at night an insulated concrete wall and floor will absorb the cool air and store it within its mass. During the day, if the walls and floors are shaded, they will stay cool and so will the interior of the home. In the winter, during daylight, the concrete walls and floors absorbs the sun's heat energy. During the night, the heat then slowly spreads through the wall and floor (conductivity) and releases into the home. Water, stone, brick, and concrete are examples of materials with high thermal mass. Steel, wood, and carpeting are examples of materials with low thermal mass and should be avoided as part of an energy-efficient home design.
An essential design component of an energy-efficient home is continuous insulation (CI). In fact, the ASHRAE 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (2015 IECC) require continuous insulation, which is defined by the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 as insulation that is uncompressed and continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. A thermal bridge is a section of a wall assembly that allows heat and energy to flow through it at a higher rate than the surrounding area and reduces the effective R-value1 of the wall assembly. The purpose of CI is to stop thermal bridging, increase the effective R-value\ and eliminate condensation. Continuous insulation stops air leakage (thermal bridging) in a home and saves homeowners money and energy by reducing mechanical ventilation costs and heating and cooling expenses.
Preventing air and moisture infiltration to the interior of a house is essential to the design of an energy-efficient home. Air tightness of a home is a critical factor in eliminating thermal bridges. Moisture resistance is crucial to preventing rot and the growth of mold and mildew, which can significantly degrade the indoor environmental quality of a home. To minimize air and moisture infiltration within a home, an air and moisture barrier, along with continuous insulation, is imperative to an energy-efficient home design.
Bautex Wall System is a high thermal mass product that provides continuous insulation and minimizes air and moisture infiltration. The Bautex insulated concrete blocks provide an R-14 continuous insulation that meets, if not surpasses, the codes and standards of the (ASHRAE 90.1) Code (2015 IECC). Also, application of the Bautex AMB 20 air and moisture barrier to the Bautex Block wall creates a moisture resistant, airtight home that eliminates thermal bridges and condensation.
In addition, the Bautex Wall System is noise reducing, easy to install, and disaster-resistant and has an ASTM E119 fire rating of four hours with ASTM E84 values for flame speed of zero and smoke development of twenty.
A cool roof of an energy-efficient home protects against solar heat gain and keeps the house and attic space cool. Asphalt shingles, a traditional roofing material, has a high thermal mass and will absorb the sun’s heat, which will transfer to the inside of a home. Typically, a cool roof is made of low thermal mass materials like tiles, slate, or clay that are reflective or have light colored pigments that reflect the sunlight. A wonderful cool roof option for homes with flat rooftops and limited green space, is a green roof. Green roofs include anything from simple plant cover to a working garden. Cool roofs improve indoor comfort and reduce energy bills. They can also extend the roof’s service life.
Slab foundations are most effective way to separate an energy-efficient home from the ground; saving time, money, and materials. Concrete slabs, along with a continuous layer of rigid foam insulation under the slab, are perfect for an energy-efficient home design. The high thermal mass of concrete holds radiant energy and keeps a home warm and dry inside. Also, an acid-etched or dyed concrete slab is a very attractive finished floor.
A home’s heating and cooling system account for 48 percent of a home’s energy use. The design of an energy-efficient home should consider high-efficiency heating and cooling systems that use less energy. For example, the most efficient HVAC system is 95 percent efficient; meaning 5 percent of the energy produced is lost. It is imperative that HVAC professionals install the systems in accordance with ENERGY STAR homes. Improper installation of an HVAC lessens the efficiency of a system by up to 30 percent. VRF and variable speed HVAC systems are some of the most efficient systems available.
Controlling ventilation of an energy-efficient home is critical because the air-tightness of an energy-efficient home may trap pollutants (like radon, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds). It is essential for an energy-efficient home to install an energy recovery ventilation system. An energy recovery ventilation system controls ventilation and minimizes energy loss by transferring energy from conditioned air going out to fresh incoming air. Other useful methods of ventilation for an energy-efficient home are spot ventilation, such as exhaust fans in the kitchen and bathrooms, along with natural ventilation.
The windows, skylights and doors of an energy efficient home provide light, warmth, ventilation, along with energy and cost savings. Design of an energy-efficient home should include energy efficient windows, skylights, and doors appropriate to the home’s climate zone. Also, in the northern hemisphere, major glazing areas should face south to take advantage of the sun’s energy in winter months when the sun is low. For warmer climates, limit south facing windows. If windows face south, install shading devices can prevents excessive heat gain during the hot, summer months.
Design of an energy-efficient home includes energy-efficient appliances: washer and dryer, refrigerator, dishwasher, microwave, dehumidifier, freezer, etc. Energy-efficient appliances reduce a home's energy use, emit less air pollution and increase the resale value of a home. Selecting ENERGY STAR appliances ensure the product saves energy and money and protects the environment.
The average home owns 24 electronic products, which are responsible for 12 percent of a home’s electricity use. In addition in 2015, 24 percent of employed people did some or all of their work at home and require home office equipment. The design of an energy-efficient home must include selection of ENERGY STAR®-labeled office equipment and electronics.
Lighting contributes up to 15% of a home’s annual electricity costs and is a crucial design consideration of an energy-efficient home. Controls such as timers, photocells that turn lights off when not in use and dimmers can save money and energy. Examples of energy-efficient lighting include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and halogen incandescent.
Water heating accounts for 15 percent of energy costs and is one of the largest energy expenses in a home. Fortunately, there are several high-efficiency water heater options that can save energy and money: tankless water heater, high-efficiency water heater, high-efficiency heat pump water heater, and high-efficiency solar water heater.
Including smarthome products in the design of an energy-efficient home is a convenient option for a homeowner that saves money and energy and makes a home safer. Examples of smart home products include programmable thermostats, occupancy or motion sensors, CO2 and other air quality alarms.
The design of an energy-efficient home should strive to create as much energy as it uses by installing renewable energy measures: for example, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, wind system, small "hybrid" electric system, or microhydropower. Renewable energy sources can reduce or completely eliminate a home’s utility bills and may even have tax incentives.
The ultimate goal of an energy-efficient home is to achieve net zero energy use. The design should also strive to meet the Energy Star requirements for sustainability, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards, and the International Green Construction Code (IgCC). Achieving these standards and requirements will create an energy-efficient home that saves money and energy, creates a high degree of comfort for the occupants, and ultimately increase the resale value of the house. Visit Bautex Wall System for more information on must have elements for designing an energy-efficient home.
A building's wall assembly resistance to this flow is measured by its effective R-value. The effective R-value includes all the materials used in its construction: the studs, siding, drywall, fiberglass batts, plywood or OSB sheathing, water control plane. The higher the R-value, the less the conductivities of the wall assembly.